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Another study comparing indigenous hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists in South America found a positive correlation with foraging subsistence and high frequencies of the 7 repeat allele suggesting that the subsistence mode has selective impact on the polymorphism (Tovo-Rodrigues et al. Both studies have been conducted on modern populations, thus it has to be considered that observed frequencies might have been biased by past admixture with other populations or even that the modes of subsistence as well as the grades of social complexity in these populations changed over time, meaning that e.g.
populations classified has hunter-gatherers had a history of being horticulturalists, pastoralists, or agriculturalist and more recently switched to a foraging lifestyle.
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Certain Polymorphisms in the DRD4 gene have been associated with behavioral traits such as novelty seeking (NS), impulsivity, and ADHD.
Further, we performed statistical tests to explore possible association of observed differences with socioeconomic or environmental factors. We find signals of slight selection acting on the DRD4-521 T allele.
While the postulated association between the −521 C/T DRD4 SNP with modes of subsistence was not confirmed the results suggest a possible impact of socioeconomic complexity and political organization on the variability of the SNP in in pre-Columbian western South American populations.
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For comparison analysis we collected genotype data from the 1000 Genome Project Lima (PEL) population (Altshuler et al.Since we aim to address our hypothesis using ancient DNA, issues of preservation would prevent us from observing a polymorphism involving so many base pairs.For this reason, this study looks at the −521 C/T SNP (rs1800955) instead.It has to be acknowledged that these categorizations cannot reflect the individual complexity of the archaeological groups included in this study and that transitions between assigned categories can be more or less fluent, but as a model for the questions addressed in this study the chosen systematics are the only ones feasible.).At least two independent extracts were made for each sample to allow an authentication of analysis results by comparison.